base-orphans-0.8.6: Backwards-compatible orphan instances for base
Safe HaskellNone



Exports modules that Data.Orphans needs. Because Data.Orphans uses several modules that only need to be in scope for certain versions of GHC, exporting all of the modules separately eliminates the need to use CPP pragmas for GHC-version-specific imports. This makes it much easier to be -Wall-compliant.

Note that this module does not export any modules that could introduce name clashes.



augment :: (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

A list producer that can be fused with foldr. This function is merely

   augment g xs = g (:) xs

but GHC's simplifier will transform an expression of the form foldr k z (augment g xs), which may arise after inlining, to g k (foldr k z xs), which avoids producing an intermediate list.

(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] infixr 5 Source #

Append two lists, i.e.,

[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ..., yn] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ..., yn]
[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ...] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ...]

If the first list is not finite, the result is the first list.

build :: (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] Source #

A list producer that can be fused with foldr. This function is merely

   build g = g (:) []

but GHC's simplifier will transform an expression of the form foldr k z (build g), which may arise after inlining, to g k z, which avoids producing an intermediate list.

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source #

foldr, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:

foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)

seq :: forall (r :: RuntimeRep) a (b :: TYPE r). a -> b -> b infixr 0 Source #

The value of seq a b is bottom if a is bottom, and otherwise equal to b. In other words, it evaluates the first argument a to weak head normal form (WHNF). seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness.

A note on evaluation order: the expression seq a b does not guarantee that a will be evaluated before b. The only guarantee given by seq is that the both a and b will be evaluated before seq returns a value. In particular, this means that b may be evaluated before a. If you need to guarantee a specific order of evaluation, you must use the function pseq from the "parallel" package.

eqString :: String -> String -> Bool Source #

This String equality predicate is used when desugaring pattern-matches against strings.

unpackFoldrCString# :: Addr# -> (Char -> a -> a) -> a -> a Source #

unsafeCoerce# :: forall (k0 :: RuntimeRep) (k1 :: RuntimeRep) (a :: TYPE k0) (b :: TYPE k1). a -> b Source #

The function unsafeCoerce# allows you to side-step the typechecker entirely. That is, it allows you to coerce any type into any other type. If you use this function, you had better get it right, otherwise segmentation faults await. It is generally used when you want to write a program that you know is well-typed, but where Haskell's type system is not expressive enough to prove that it is well typed.

The following uses of unsafeCoerce# are supposed to work (i.e. not lead to spurious compile-time or run-time crashes):

  • Casting any lifted type to Any
  • Casting Any back to the real type
  • Casting an unboxed type to another unboxed type of the same size. (Casting between floating-point and integral types does not work. See the GHC.Float module for functions to do work.)
  • Casting between two types that have the same runtime representation. One case is when the two types differ only in "phantom" type parameters, for example Ptr Int to Ptr Float, or [Int] to [Float] when the list is known to be empty. Also, a newtype of a type T has the same representation at runtime as T.

Other uses of unsafeCoerce# are undefined. In particular, you should not use unsafeCoerce# to cast a T to an algebraic data type D, unless T is also an algebraic data type. For example, do not cast Int->Int to Bool, even if you later cast that Bool back to Int->Int before applying it. The reasons have to do with GHC's internal representation details (for the cognoscenti, data values can be entered but function closures cannot). If you want a safe type to cast things to, use Any, which is not an algebraic data type.

Warning: this can fail with an unchecked exception.

bindIO :: IO a -> (a -> IO b) -> IO b Source #

returnIO :: a -> IO a Source #

print :: Show a => a -> IO () Source #

The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show; print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline.

For example, a program to print the first 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as:

main = print ([(n, 2^n) | n <- [0..19]])

nullAddr# :: Addr# Source #

The null address.

otherwise :: Bool Source #

otherwise is defined as the value True. It helps to make guards more readable. eg.

 f x | x < 0     = ...
     | otherwise = ...

assert :: Bool -> a -> a Source #

If the first argument evaluates to True, then the result is the second argument. Otherwise an AssertionFailed exception is raised, containing a String with the source file and line number of the call to assert.

Assertions can normally be turned on or off with a compiler flag (for GHC, assertions are normally on unless optimisation is turned on with -O or the -fignore-asserts option is given). When assertions are turned off, the first argument to assert is ignored, and the second argument is returned as the result.

thenIO :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b Source #

lazy :: a -> a Source #

The lazy function restrains strictness analysis a little. The call lazy e means the same as e, but lazy has a magical property so far as strictness analysis is concerned: it is lazy in its first argument, even though its semantics is strict. After strictness analysis has run, calls to lazy are inlined to be the identity function.

This behaviour is occasionally useful when controlling evaluation order. Notably, lazy is used in the library definition of par:

par :: a -> b -> b
par x y = case (par# x) of _ -> lazy y

If lazy were not lazy, par would look strict in y which would defeat the whole purpose of par.

Like seq, the argument of lazy can have an unboxed type.

oneShot :: forall (q :: RuntimeRep) (r :: RuntimeRep) (a :: TYPE q) (b :: TYPE r). (a -> b) -> a -> b Source #

The oneShot function can be used to give a hint to the compiler that its argument will be called at most once, which may (or may not) enable certain optimizations. It can be useful to improve the performance of code in continuation passing style.

If oneShot is used wrongly, then it may be that computations whose result that would otherwise be shared are re-evaluated every time they are used. Otherwise, the use of oneShot is safe.

oneShot is representation polymorphic: the type variables may refer to lifted or unlifted types.

runRW# :: forall (r :: RuntimeRep) (o :: TYPE r). (State# RealWorld -> o) -> o Source #

Apply a function to a State# RealWorld token. When manually applying a function to realWorld#, it is necessary to use NOINLINE to prevent semantically undesirable floating. runRW# is inlined, but only very late in compilation after all floating is complete.

breakpoint :: a -> a Source #

inline :: a -> a Source #

The call inline f arranges that f is inlined, regardless of its size. More precisely, the call inline f rewrites to the right-hand side of f's definition. This allows the programmer to control inlining from a particular call site rather than the definition site of the function (c.f. INLINE pragmas).

This inlining occurs regardless of the argument to the call or the size of f's definition; it is unconditional. The main caveat is that f's definition must be visible to the compiler; it is therefore recommended to mark the function with an INLINABLE pragma at its definition so that GHC guarantees to record its unfolding regardless of size.

If no inlining takes place, the inline function expands to the identity function in Phase zero, so its use imposes no overhead.

map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] Source #

\(\mathcal{O}(n)\). map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e.,

map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn]
map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]
>>> map (+1) [1, 2, 3]

($) :: forall (r :: RuntimeRep) a (b :: TYPE r). (a -> b) -> a -> b infixr 0 Source #

Application operator. This operator is redundant, since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). However, $ has low, right-associative binding precedence, so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted; for example:

f $ g $ h x  =  f (g (h x))

It is also useful in higher-order situations, such as map ($ 0) xs, or zipWith ($) fs xs.

Note that ($) is levity-polymorphic in its result type, so that foo $ True where foo :: Bool -> Int# is well-typed.

noinline :: a -> a Source #

The call noinline f arranges that f will not be inlined. It is removed during CorePrep so that its use imposes no overhead (besides the fact that it blocks inlining.)

coerce :: forall (k :: RuntimeRep) (a :: TYPE k) (b :: TYPE k). Coercible a b => a -> b Source #

The function coerce allows you to safely convert between values of types that have the same representation with no run-time overhead. In the simplest case you can use it instead of a newtype constructor, to go from the newtype's concrete type to the abstract type. But it also works in more complicated settings, e.g. converting a list of newtypes to a list of concrete types.

This function is runtime-representation polymorphic, but the RuntimeRep type argument is marked as Inferred, meaning that it is not available for visible type application. This means the typechecker will accept coerce @Int @Age 42.

guard :: Alternative f => Bool -> f () Source #

Conditional failure of Alternative computations. Defined by

guard True  = pure ()
guard False = empty



Common uses of guard include conditionally signaling an error in an error monad and conditionally rejecting the current choice in an Alternative-based parser.

As an example of signaling an error in the error monad Maybe, consider a safe division function safeDiv x y that returns Nothing when the denominator y is zero and Just (x `div` y) otherwise. For example:

>>> safeDiv 4 0
>>> safeDiv 4 2
Just 2

A definition of safeDiv using guards, but not guard:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y | y /= 0    = Just (x `div` y)
            | otherwise = Nothing

A definition of safeDiv using guard and Monad do-notation:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y = do
  guard (y /= 0)
  return (x `div` y)

class IsList l where Source #

The IsList class and its methods are intended to be used in conjunction with the OverloadedLists extension.

Since: base-

Minimal complete definition

fromList, toList

Associated Types

type Item l Source #

The Item type function returns the type of items of the structure l.


fromList :: [Item l] -> l Source #

The fromList function constructs the structure l from the given list of Item l

fromListN :: Int -> [Item l] -> l Source #

The fromListN function takes the input list's length as a hint. Its behaviour should be equivalent to fromList. The hint can be used to construct the structure l more efficiently compared to fromList. If the given hint does not equal to the input list's length the behaviour of fromListN is not specified.

toList :: l -> [Item l] Source #

The toList function extracts a list of Item l from the structure l. It should satisfy fromList . toList = id.


Instances details
IsList CallStack

Be aware that 'fromList . toList = id' only for unfrozen CallStacks, since toList removes frozenness information.

Since: base-

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exts

Associated Types

type Item CallStack Source #

IsList Version

Since: base-

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exts

Associated Types

type Item Version Source #

IsList [a]

Since: base-

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exts

Associated Types

type Item [a] Source #


fromList :: [Item [a]] -> [a] Source #

fromListN :: Int -> [Item [a]] -> [a] Source #

toList :: [a] -> [Item [a]] Source #

IsList (ZipList a)

Since: base-

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exts

Associated Types

type Item (ZipList a) Source #


fromList :: [Item (ZipList a)] -> ZipList a Source #

fromListN :: Int -> [Item (ZipList a)] -> ZipList a Source #

toList :: ZipList a -> [Item (ZipList a)] Source #

IsList (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exts

Associated Types

type Item (NonEmpty a) Source #

proxy# :: forall k (a :: k). Proxy# a Source #

Witness for an unboxed Proxy# value, which has no runtime representation.

emptyCallStack :: CallStack Source #

The empty CallStack.

Since: base-

pushCallStack :: ([Char], SrcLoc) -> CallStack -> CallStack Source #

Push a call-site onto the stack.

This function has no effect on a frozen CallStack.

Since: base-

join :: Monad m => m (m a) -> m a Source #

The join function is the conventional monad join operator. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure, projecting its bound argument into the outer level.

'join bss' can be understood as the do expression

do bs <- bss



A common use of join is to run an IO computation returned from an STM transaction, since STM transactions can't perform IO directly. Recall that

atomically :: STM a -> IO a

is used to run STM transactions atomically. So, by specializing the types of atomically and join to

atomically :: STM (IO b) -> IO (IO b)
join       :: IO (IO b)  -> IO b

we can compose them as

join . atomically :: STM (IO b) -> IO b

to run an STM transaction and the IO action it returns.

class Eq a where Source #

The Eq class defines equality (==) and inequality (/=). All the basic datatypes exported by the Prelude are instances of Eq, and Eq may be derived for any datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Eq. However, == is customarily expected to implement an equivalence relationship where two values comparing equal are indistinguishable by "public" functions, with a "public" function being one not allowing to see implementation details. For example, for a type representing non-normalised natural numbers modulo 100, a "public" function doesn't make the difference between 1 and 201. It is expected to have the following properties:

x == x = True
x == y = y == x
if x == y && y == z = True, then x == z = True
if x == y = True and f is a "public" function whose return type is an instance of Eq, then f x == f y = True
x /= y = not (x == y)

Minimal complete definition: either == or /=.

Minimal complete definition

(==) | (/=)


(==) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 Source #

(/=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 Source #


Instances details
Eq Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes


(==) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool Source #

(/=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool Source #

Eq Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes


(==) :: Char -> Char -> Bool Source #

(/=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool Source #

Eq Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Double)

Also note that Double's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Double)
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Double)
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes<